Alzheimers disease and early-onset dementia both of which impact on a persons health and quality of life dont appear in patients brain until the late phases. According to a study published in Nature Neurobiology a particular subset of extracellular vesicles could offer a quick way to detect Alzheimers and early-onset dementia.
Extracellular vesicles are tiny particles released by cancer cells into the substance nanolipids or lipids. Cells release these vesicles as part of a natural extracellular environment and the vesicles promote biological processes by a chemical signaling pathway. However they are extremely small about 100 nanometers and less than ten thousandth of one nanogram of weight in length. To treat diseases we need to find new ways to provide treatments that have greater and better impact. In order to address this issue a group of scientists from the CNRS and the Universities of Lyon and Wrzburg developed a novel extracellular vesicle development method based on the characterization of capsids-tiny capsids that collect on cells allowing for easy detection of nanolipids. The CNRS group also developed polymers that could be used to control the manner in which these vesicles behave and to measure their quality.
In the past the ability to detect diseases rapidly had been limited due to the sensitivity and low concentration of nanolipids. Thus we have developed cationic nanoparticles to identify plasticity of the cell. However cationic nanoparticles contains only a few nanolipids and not enough for the detection of Alzheimers or early-onset dementia which together affect around one in five people over the age of 75 explained the head of the CNRS bioinformatics institute Daniela Gunli who is also a member of the Swiss SAGE Institute.
In addition to testing the catalytic activity of cationic nanoparticles in the brains of mice with Alzheimers disease and Alzheimers disease using standard clinical tools the CNRS team also developed a sophisticated one-way signal for expansion of the cationic nanoparticle and its microenvironment. This signal will include gas exchange inside the nanoparticle and pores on the surface of the nanoparticle. However to detect the neuropathological phenomena associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and early-onset dementia this signal is essential to be developed.